Caneuon Gwerin

Archwilio ac arddangos caneuon Gwerin o Gymru / Exploring and showcasing folk songs from Wales

Cadi Ha

(Cadi and Bili at Cadi Ha festival 2010. Photo from the BBC news website.)

[See below for English]

Mae Mai yn fis pwysig yn y dyddiadur gwerin. Mae’n adeg pan mae’r gwanwyn ar ei orau ac mae natyr yn dod i fywyd. Yn draddodiadol roedd y cyntaf o Fai yn ddiwrnod i ddathlu ffrwythlondeb ac efallai i ddarganfod, trwy ddewiniaeth, pwy byddech yn priodi.

Yn ogystal a bod yn enw ar gân mae Cadi Ha yn fath o ddawns ac enw ar ŵyl sydd wedi digwydd ar ddiwedd Ebrill/dechrau Mai pob blwyddyn yn Nhrefynnon, Sir y Fflint, ers 1997. Mae hi’n ŵyl dawnsio efo plant o ysgolion lleol a thimoedd dawns o Gymru a thu hwnt yn cymrud rhan mewn gorymdaith fawr trwy y dref cyn cydperfformio dawnsiau mewn sgwâr agored. Yn ystod y gorymdaith mae’r dawnswyr yn canu’r gân Cadi Ha. Dyma fideo o’r ŵyl yn 2012.

Mae gan y ddawns Cadi Ha llawer yn debyg i ddawnsiau Morys yn Lloegr – mae’r dawnswr (dynion i gyd yn wreiddiol) yn paentio eu gwynebau yn ddu (o bosib er mwyn i neb eu adnabod yn gwneud rhywbeth basau’r eglwys yn anghymeradwyo) ac yn gwisgo mewn gwyn efo rhubanau a chlychau, mae yna cymeriadau (un dyn mewn diddad dyn o’r enw Bili ac un arall mewn dillad merch o’r enw Cadi) a roedd casglu arian yn rhan o’r draddodiad. Yn debyg i ddawnsio rapper Saesneg cafodd yn dawns Cadi Ha ei greu gan glowyr yn Ne Dwyrain y wlad. Dechraeodd hi yn yr ardaloedd o amgylch Bagillyt, Treffynnon, Mostyn a Llanasa.

Mae llawer o’r traddodiadu Mai ynglŷn a dathlu’r gwanwyn a chael gwared o ysbrydion drwg fel bod bywyd newydd yn gallu ffynnu. Mae’r dawns Cadi Ha hefyd yn sôn am y pethau hyn – roedd rhywun yn cario ddraenen ddu o flaen y dawnswyr er mwyn ysgubo i ffwrdd yr ysbyrion drwg. Dyma’r unig person nad oedd yn rhoi du ar ei wyneb – theori amgen am y gwynebau du oedd bod hi’n ffordd o erlid yr ysbyrdion felly basau’r dyn efo’r draenen dim angen gwyneb du. Mae Jan Miller yn dweud yn A Country Diary for North Wales (Matador, 2005) bod y dyn efo’r draenen yn torri’r draenen y noson cyn y gorymdaith. Mai hi’n ystyried symbolaeth y ddraenen ac yn dweud, “perhaps the re-incarnation of life after the apparent death of winter – perhaps all othse poles were some kind of phallic symbol representing or invoking the fertility of the earth as well?”

Er y symbolaeth yn y ddawns dydy hi ddim yn un seriws neu gyfriniol. Mae yna elfen cystadleuol efo geiriau y gân yn herio un dawnsiwr y neidio’n uwch na dawnsiwr arall – “Am yr ychla neidio”. Mae hwn y debyg i’r jigs unigol neu duo mae dawnswyr Morys y Cotswolds yn gwneud a hefyd i’r dawns traddodiadol Halling Norwyeg lle mae’n rhaid i ddynion ceisio cicio het oddi ar ffon.

Mae Cadi Ha yn gân hwyl. Mae hi’n enghraifft dda o beth basau cerddorion clasurol yn alw’n paentio geiriau gan fod pwb ‘hwp’ yn uchel yn yr alaw ac efo llawer o egni. Fel llawer o ganeuon gwerin mae rhai o’r llinellau yn dwli ond yr alaw a’r naws sy’n bwysig, nid y geiriau yn unig.

Mae Patrick Dean yn chwarae’r melodeon ar y recordiad yma.

Dyma fideo o’r ISCA Morrismen yn gwneud a ddawns Cadi Ha.

Gwreiddiau

Y cofnod cyntaf o’r traddodiad yw 1815 yn ardal Treffynnon. Ysgrifennodd y Parch Peter Roberts o Lanarmon DC amdano yn ei Cambrian Popular Antiquities. Dwedodd bod yna 9 dyn yn dawnsio mewn rhubanau a chlychau a bod y dyn oedd wedi gwisgo fel merch yn cael ei alw’n Megan (nid Cadi).

Yn ôl Jan Miller ysgrifennodd William Hone am y ddawns yn 1825 ac ysgrifennodd Jane Williams amdano yn 1870.

Yn ôl Dr E Wyn James yn ei erthygl ‘An ‘English’ Lady among Welsh Folk: Ruth Herbert Lewis and the Welsh Folk-Song Society casglwyd un pennill o’r gân a’r dawns hefyd gan Lady Herbert Lewis (1871–1946) o Gaerwys oddi wrth Feistr Tloty Treffynnon. Chyoeddwyd hi yn 1930 yn The Journal of the Welsh Folk Song Society, 3:1, p.69.

Fel llawer o ganeuon gwerin gwyddem fod yna fersiynau gwahanol newn ardaloedd gwahanol. Fel yn y traddodiad Mari Lwyd neu’r canu pennillion gwreiddiol roedd y dawnswyr yn gwneud penillion i fyny wrth iddynt fynd trwy’r dref ond mae’r pennillion yma bellach ar goll.

Ble nesaf?

Gallwch clywed y gân ar y CDs yma:

  • Mynediad am Ddim, Hwyl Wrth Ganu, 1979, cassette ar gyfer Y Mudiad Ysgolion Meithrin wedyn ar CD yn 2003, Sain
  • Plethyn, Caneuon Gwerin i Blant/Welsh Folk Songs for Children, 1984, Sain
  • Dafydd Iawn, Cwm-Rhyd-Y-Rhosyn 2, 2004, Sain
  • Amryw o artistiaid, Mi Ganaf Gân (101 Children’s Songs), 2011, Sain

Mae yna fideo o Jem Hammond yn chwarae yr alaw ar YouTube.

Mae’r gân wedi ei gyhoeddi yn y llefydd yma:

  • Meinir Wyn Edwards (gol), 100 o Ganeuon Gwerin (Y Lolfa, 2010)
  • Phyllis Kinney and Meredydd Evans (gol), Caneuon Gwerin i Blant (The Welsh Folk-Song Society, 1981)
  • Pecyn ysgol o’r enw Cadi Ha gan Uned Iaith Genedlaethol Cymru efo gwybodaeth, caneuon traddodiadol, gweithgareddau cerddorol a syniadau ar gyfer prosiectau.
  • Loïs Blake a Grace Williams, Cadi Ha (Llangollen: Gwynn Publishing Co., 1939)

Mae mwy o wybodaeth am y draddodiad yn y llyfrau yma:

  • Ian Russell & David Atkinson (gol), Folk Song: Tradition, Revival, and Re-Creation (Aberdeen: The Elphinstone Institute, University of Aberdeen, 2004), pp. 266–83
  • Trefor M. Owen, Welsh Folk Customs (Cardiff: National Museum of Wales, 1959), pp.101–8
  • The Customs and Traditions of Wales (Cardiff: University of Wales Press, 1991), pp.70, 71–2
  • W. S. Gwynn Williams, Welsh National Music and Dance (London: J. Curwen & Sons, 1932), pp.113–17
  • Hugh Mellor, Welsh Folk Dances (London: Novello and Company, 1935), pp.11–12, 16–21, 59–61
  • Beryl Davies, ‘Cadi Ha’, Llafar Gwlad, 33 (1991), pp.4–6
  • Jan Miller, A Country Diary for North Wales (Matador, 2005)

Geiriau

Dwi’n canu y 3 pennill yn 100 o Ganeuon Gwerin. Dwi’n meddwl bod y geiriau yn seiliedig ar y rhai casglwyd gan Lady Herbert Lewis. Mae’r gair “dyna” wedi ei ysgrifennu fel dyna ond basau pobl o’r ardal yn ynganu hi fel “dene”, felly dyma sut mae hi wedi ei sgwennu mewn rhai llyfrau. Mae Mynediad am Ddim yn canu pennill gwahanol ond mae’n cynnwys y geiriau “mamgu” a “mas” sydd ddim yn eiriau byddwch yn clywed yn Sir y Fflint! Dwi ddim yn siwr o ble mae’r pennill yma wedi dod felly dwi ddim yn canu hi ond dwi wedi rhoi hi mewn cromgachau yma.

Dwi wedi newid dau llinell o beth sydd yn y llyfr. Mae’n well gen i “A neidiaf dros y ganfa” na “A neidiaf dros y goeden” a mae “Fy ladal i, a’i ladal o” yn gwneud mwy o synwyr na “la da li a la da lo”.

Mae Anne Gilchrist yn JWFSS yn dweud bod y llinell “hwp, dena fo!” Yn debyg i’r gân Hollantide o Ynys Manaw sy’n mynd “Hop! Ta’n oie!”

Hwp Ha Wen! Cadi Ha,
Morys stowt,
Am yr ychla neidio,
Hwp, dyna fo!
A chynffon buwch a chynffon llo,
A chynffon Rhisiart Parri’r go,
Hwp, dyna fo!

Hwp Ha Wen! Don’t you star,
Morys stowt,
Am yr ychla neidio,
Hwp, dyna fo!
A fi di gŵr y rhuban coch,
A neidiaf dros y gafna,
Hwp dyna fo!

Hwp Ha Wen! Fy ladal i,
A’i ladal o,
A’r ladal ges i fenthyg,
Hwp, dyna fo!
A chynffon buwch a chynffon llo,
A chynffon Rhisiart Parri’r go,
Hwp, dyna fo!

(Hwp Ha Wen! Cadi Ha,
Morys stowt,
Dros yr ychla neidio,
Hwp, dyna fo!
Mamgu, mamgu, dewch mas o’r tŷ,
Cael gweld John Jones ar ben y ci,
Hwp, dyna fo!)

Summer Kate

May is an important time in the folk calendar. It’s a time when spring is at its best and nature is coming back to life. Traditionally, the first of May was a day to celebrate fertility and perhaps to discover, by divination, who you would end up marrying.

Children at Cadi Ha

From BBC news website

As well as being a song, Cadi Ha is a type of dance and also the name of a festival which has taken place in late April/early May every year in Hollywell, Flintshire, since 1997. It’s a dancing festival where children from local schools and dance teams from Wales and beyond take part in a procession through the town before co-performing dances in an open square. During the procession the dancers sing the Cadi Ha song. There’s a video of the 2012 festival on YouTube.

The Cadi Ha song has many similarities to English Morris dancing – the dancers (traditionally all men) paint their faces black (possibly to avoid being spotted doing something which the church disapproved of) and wear white with ribbons and bells, there are characters (a man in men’s clothes called Bili and a man in woman’s clothes called Cadi) and collecting money is part of the tradition. Like English rapper sword dancing, the Cadi Ha dance was created by miners in the North East of the country. It started in the areas around Bagillt, Hollywell, Mostyn and Llanasa.

A lot of the May traditions celebrate the spring and driving out bad spirits so that the new year can thrive. The Cadi Ha dance references this – someone would carry a blackthorn stick in front of the dancers in order to sweep away the bad spirits. This is the only person who didn’t paint his face black – an alternative theory about the black faces was that it was a way of keeping yourself safe from ghosts so the man with the thorn wouldn’t need a black face. Jan Miller says in A Country Diary for North Wales (Matador, 2005) that the man with the thorn stick would cut it the night before the procession. She considers the symbolism of the thorn and says, “perhaps the re-incarnation of life after the apparent death of winter – perhaps all other poles were some kind of phallic symbol representing or invoking the fertility of the earth as well?”

Despite the symbolism the dance isn’t serious or mysterious. There’s a competitive element with the words challenging one dancer to jump higher than another dancer – “Am yr ychla neidio” (I’ll jump the highest). This is similar to Cotswold solo or duo jigs and also to the traditional Norwegian Halling dance where men have to try and kick a hat off a stick.

Cadi Ha is a fun song. It’s a good example of what classical musicians call ‘word painting’ because each “hwp” is high pitched and has lots of energy. Like lots of folk songs some of the lines are nonsense but it’s the tune and the feeling which are important, not just the words.

Patrick Dean is playing the melodeon here.

You can see the ISCA Morrismen doing the Cadi Ha dance on YouTube.

Origins

The first record of the tradition comes from 1815 in the Hollywell area. The Rev Peter Roberts from Llanarmon DC wrote about it in his Cambrian Popular Antiquities. He said that there were 9 men dancing in ribbons and bells and that the man dressed as a woman was called Megan (not Cadi).

According to Jan Miller, William Hone wrote about the dance in 1825 and Jane Williams did the same in 1870.

According to Dr E Wyn James in his article called ‘An ‘English’ Lady among Welsh Folk: Ruth Herbert Lewis and the Welsh Folk-Song Society‘ Lady Herbert Lewis (1871–1946) from Caerwys collected one verse and the dance from the Master at Hollywell Workhouse. She published them in 1930 in the Journal of the Welsh Folk Song Society, 3:1, p.69.

Like many folk songs we know that there were regional variations. As in the Mari Lwyd tradition or pennillion singing the dancers originally made up verses as they went along but these verses have now been lost.

Where next?

You can hear the song on these CDs:

  • Mynediad am Ddim, Hwyl Wrth Ganu, 1979, cassette for the Mudiad Ysgolion Meithrin (a voluntary organisation for Welsh-medium nursery groups) and then on CD in 2003, Sain
  • Plethyn, Caneuon Gwerin i Blant/Welsh Folk Songs for Children, 1984, Sain
  • Dafydd Iawn, Cwm-Rhyd-Y-Rhosyn 2, 2004, Sain
  • Various Artists, Mi Ganaf Gân (101 Children’s Songs), 2011, Sain

Here is a video of Jem Hammond playing the tune on his pipgorn.

The song has been published in these places:

  • Meinir Wyn Edwards (ed), 100 o Ganeuon Gwerin (Y Lolfa, 2010)
  • Phyllis Kinney and Meredydd Evans (eds), Caneuon Gwerin i Blant (The Welsh Folk-Song Society, 1981).
  • A schools pack called Cadi Ha by Uned Iaith Genedlaethol Cymru (the national language unit of Wales) with information, traditional songs, musical activities and ideas for projects.
  • Loïs Blake and Grace Williams, Cadi Ha (Llangollen: Gwynn Publishing Co., 1939)

There is more information about the tradition in these books:

  • Ian Russell & David Atkinson (eds), Folk Song: Tradition, Revival, and Re-Creation (Aberdeen: The Elphinstone Institute, University of Aberdeen, 2004), pp. 266–83
  • Trefor M. Owen, Welsh Folk Customs (Cardiff: National Museum of Wales, 1959), pp.101–8
  • The Customs and Traditions of Wales (Cardiff: University of Wales Press, 1991), pp.70, 71–2
  • W. S. Gwynn Williams, Welsh National Music and Dance (London: J. Curwen & Sons, 1932), pp.113–17
  • Hugh Mellor, Welsh Folk Dances (London: Novello and Company, 1935), pp.11–12, 16–21, 59–61
  • Beryl Davies, ‘Cadi Ha’, Llafar Gwlad, 33 (1991), pp.4–6
  • Jan Miller, A Country Diary for North Wales (Matador, 2005)

Words

I sing the 3 verses in 100 o Ganeuon Gwerin. I think the words to the first verse are based on those collected by Lady Herbert Lewis. Mynediad am Ddim sing a different verse but it includes the words “mamgu” (grandma) and “mas” (out) which are South Walian dialect so not words you’d hear in Flintshire! I don’t know where this verse has come from so I don’t sing it but I’ve put it in brackets here.

Anne Gilchrist says in JWFSS that the line “hwp, dyna fo!” is similar to the Manx Hollantide song which goes “Hop! ta’n oie!”

Hoop, ha wen! Cadi ha,
Stout Morris,
For the highest jumping,
Hoop, that’s it!
And tail of cow and tail of calf,
Richard Parry the blacksmith’s tail,
Hoop, that’s it!

Hwp Ha Wen! Don’t you start,
Stout Morris,
For the highest jumping,
Hoop, that’s it!
And I’m the man with the red ribbon,
I’ll jump over the style,
Hoop, that’s it!

Hoop, Ha Wen! My ladle
And his ladle,
And the ladle I borrowed,
Hoop, that’s it!
And tail of cow and tail of calf,
Richard Parry the blacksmith’s tail,
Hoop, that’s it!

(Hoop, Ha Wen! Cadi Ha,
Stout Morris,
For the highest jumping,
Hoop, that’s it!
Grandma, grandma, come out of the house,
To see John Jones on the dog’s back,
Hoop, that’s it!)

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